Televisions can be found in billions of homes around the world. But 100 years ago, nobody even knew what a television was. In fact, as late as 1947, only a few thousand Americans owned televisions. How did such a groundbreaking technology turn from a niche invention to a living room mainstay?
The development of the television occurred over a number of years, in many countries, and using a wide application of sciences, including electricity, mechanical engineering, electromagnetism, sound technology, and electrochemistry. No single person invented the television; instead, it is a compilation of inventions perfected by fierce competition.
Chemicals that are conductors of electricity were among the first discoveries leading to the TV. Baron Ȯns Berzelius of Sweden isolated selenium in 1817, and Louis May of Great Britain discovered, in 1873, that the element is a strong electrical conductor. Sir William Crookes invented the cathode ray tube in 1878, but these discoveries took many years to merge into the common ground of television.
One of the first mechanical televisions used a rotating disk with holes arranged in a spiral pattern. This device was created independently by two inventors: Scottish inventor John Logie Baird and American inventor Charles Francis Jenkins. Both devices were invented in the early 1920s.
Prior to these two inventors, German inventor Paul Gottlieb Nipkow had developed the first mechanical television. That device sent images through wires using a rotating metal disk. Instead of calling the device a television, however, Nipkow called it an “electric telescope”. The device had 18 lines of resolution.
In 1907, two inventors – Russian Boris Rosing and English A.A. Campbell-Swinton – combined a cathode ray tube with a mechanical scanning system to create a totally new television system.
Ultimately, the early efforts of these inventors would lead to the world’s first electrical television a few years later.
The First Electronic Television was Invented in 1927
The world’s first electronic television was created by a 21 year old inventor named Philo Taylor Farnsworth. That inventor lived in a house without electricity until he was age 14. Starting in high school, he began to think of a system that could capture moving images, transform those images into code, then move those images along radio waves to different devices.
Farnsworth was miles ahead of any mechanical television system invented to-date. Farnsworth’s system captured moving images using a beam of electrons (basically, a primitive camera).
Between 1926 and 1931, mechanical television inventors continued to tweak and test their creations. However, they were all doomed to be obsolete in comparison to modern electrical televisions: by 1934, all TVs had been converted into the electronic system.
The two types of televisions listed above, mechanical and electronic, worked in vastly different ways.
Mechanical televisions relied on rotating disks to transmit images from a transmitter to the receiver. Both the transmitter and receiver had rotating disks. The disks had holes in them spaced around the disk, with each hole being slightly lower than the other.
To transmit images, you had to place a camera in a totally dark room, then place a very bright light behind the disk. That disk would be turned by a motor in order to make one revolution for every frame of the TV picture.
Baird’s early mechanical television had 30 holes and rotated 12.5 times per second. There was a lens in front of the disk to focus light onto the subject.
When light hit the subject, that light would be reflected into a photoelectric cell, which then converted this light energy to electrical impulses. The electrical impulses are transmitted over the air to a receiver. The disk on that receiver would spin at the exact same speed as the disk on the transmitter’s camera (the motors would be synchronized to ensure precise transmissions).
The receiving end featured a radio receiver, which received the transmissions and connected them to a neon lamp placed behind the disk. The disk would rotate while the lamp would put out light in proportion to the electrical signal it was getting from the receiver.
Ultimately, this system would allow you to view the image on the other side of the disk.
Electronic televisions rely on a technology called a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) as well as two or more anodes. The anodes were the positive terminals and the cathode was the negative terminal.
The “Cathode” part of the Cathode Ray Tube was a heated filament enclosed in a glass Tube (the “T” of CRT). The Cathode would release a beam of electronics into the empty space of the tube (which was actually a vacuum).
All of these released electrons had a negative charge and would thus be attracted to positively charged anodes. These anodes were found at the end of the CRT, which was the television screen. As the electrons were released at one end, they were displayed on the television screen at the other end.
Of course, firing electrons against a glass screen doesn’t make images. To make images, the inside of the television screen would be coated with phosphor. The electrons would paint an image on the screen one line at a time.
To control the firing of electrons, CRTs use two “steering coils”. Both steering coils use the power of magnets to push the electron beam to the desired location on the screen. One steering coil pushes the electrons up or down, while the other pushes them left or right.
The world’s first television stations first started appearing in America in the late 1920s and early 1930s.
The first mechanical TV station was called W3XK and was created by Charles Francis Jenkins (one of the inventors of the mechanical television). That TV station aired its first broadcast on July 2, 1928.
One of the world’s first television stations, WRGB, has the honor of being the world’s only continuously operating station since 1926 to the modern day.
America’s first commercially produced television sets were based on the mechanical television system – made by John Baird’s television designs. These sets were shown off to the public in September, 1928.
It would take until 1938, however, before American electronic television sets were produced and released commercially. They were an instant hit after release.
The world’s first television remote control was called the Tele Zoom, and it can barely even be categorized as a remote control. The Tele Zoom was only used to “zoom in” to the picture on the television. You could not use it to change any channels or turn the TV on or off. The Tele Zoom was released in 1948.
The first “true” remote control was produced by Zenith and released in 1955. This remote control could turn the television on or off and change the channel. It was also completely wireless.
The first television station in America started broadcasting in 1928. For the first 13 years of its existence, television remained blissfully commercial-free. The first commercial broadcast in America did not take place until July 1, 1941, which is when the first American advertisement aired. The ad was for a Bulova watch and lasted for 10 seconds. It aired on NBC.
Color television traces its roots as far back as 1904, when a German inventor received a patent for color television. However, that inventor did not actually have a working color television – it was just a patented idea.
A conceptualized color television system appeared in 1925 from inventor Vladimir Zworykin. However, this system was never converted into reality. All attempts to convert it into reality did not succeed.
Color television was placed on the backburner for about 20 years. In 1946, the idea of color television was renewed in earnest.
“By 1946, the Second World War was history, and people in America wanted to make up for all the time lost to the war. Black and white television was thought of as old and it was time to do something new. This is when color television systems first began to be considered seriously.”
The color television war in America was fought between two industry giants: CBS and RCA. CBS was the first company to create a color television set. However, the main drawback was that it was a mechanical television based on John Baird’s original system. Thus, it was not compatible with black and white TV sets in use across America.
Despite this major flaw, the FCC declared that the CBS color television was going to be the national standard.
RCA protested, stating that it was unfair to make CBS color TV the standard when it could even be used by millions of customers across America (most of whom owned RCA televisions).
Unfazed, RCA continued to develop their own color television system that would be compatible with its customers RCA sets. In 1953, the FCC acknowledged that RCA’s color TV system was better. Starting in 1954, color RCA TV systems were sold across America.
Color TV had a similar initial problem as 3D TV and other technologies: people owned the color TV technology, but broadcasters weren’t producing color TV content. Few people owned color TV sets between 1954 and 1965. However, starting in 1966, color TV programming was broadcast across America, leading to a surge in sales of color television sets.
Timeline of TV History Between the 1950s and 2000s
Between the 1950s and 2000s, television turned from a niche technology into a critical form of communication found in living rooms across the nation. A vast number of changes and improvements took place in the second half of the 20th century to make the television into what it is today.
On December 17, 1953, RCA had improved its system enough to gain FCC approval. This RCA system taped a program in three colors (red, green, and blue) and then these were broadcast to television sets.
The advent of digital television allowed innovations like smart television sets. A smart television, sometimes referred to as connected TV or hybrid TV, is a television set or set-top box with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 features, and is an example of technological convergence between computers, television sets and set-top boxes. Besides the traditional functions of television sets and set-top boxes provided through traditional Broadcasting media, these devices can also provide Internet TV, online interactive media, over-the-top content, as well as on-demand streaming media, and home networking access. These TVs come pre-loaded with an operating system.
Smart TV should not to be confused with Internet TV, Internet Protocol television (IPTV) or with Web TV. Internet television refers to the receiving of television content over the Internet instead of by traditional systems—terrestrial, cable and satellite (although internet itself is received by these methods). IPTV is one of the emerging Internet television technology standards for use by television networks. Web television (WebTV) is a term used for programs created by a wide variety of companies and individuals for broadcast on Internet TV. A first patent was filed in 1994 (and extended the following year) for an “intelligent” television system, linked with data processing systems, by means of a digital or analog network. Apart from being linked to data networks, one key point is its ability to automatically download necessary software routines, according to a user’s demand, and process their needs. Major TV manufacturers have announced production of smart TVs only, for middle-end and high-end TVs in 2015. Smart TVs have gotten more affordable compared to when they were first introduced, with 46 million of U.S. households having at least one as of 2019.
3D television conveys depth perception to the viewer by employing techniques such as stereoscopic display, multi-view display, 2D-plus-depth, or any other form of 3D display. Most modern 3D television sets use an active shutter 3D system or a polarized 3D system, and some are autostereoscopic without the need of glasses. Stereoscopic 3D television was demonstrated for the first time on 10 August 1928, by John Logie Baird in his company’s premises at 133 Long Acre, London. Baird pioneered a variety of 3D television systems using electromechanical and cathode-ray tube techniques. The first 3D television was produced in 1935. The advent of digital television in the 2000s greatly improved 3D television sets. Although 3D television sets are quite popular for watching 3D home media such as on Blu-ray discs, 3D programming has largely failed to make inroads with the public. Many 3D television channels which started in the early 2010s were shut down by the mid-2010s. According to DisplaySearch 3D televisions shipments totaled 41.45 million units in 2012, compared with 24.14 in 2011 and 2.26 in 2010.As of late 2013, the number of 3D TV viewers started to decline.
A modern high gain UHF Yagi television antenna. It has 17 directors, and one reflector (made of 4 rods) shaped as a corner reflector.
Programming is broadcast by television stations, sometimes called “channels”, as stations are licensed by their governments to broadcast only over assigned channels in the television band. At first, terrestrial broadcasting was the only way television could be widely distributed, and because bandwidth was limited, i.e., there were only a small number of channels available, government regulation was the norm. In the U.S., the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allowed stations to broadcast advertisements beginning in July 1941, but required public service programming commitments as a requirement for a license. By contrast, the United Kingdom chose a different route, imposing a television license fee on owners of television reception equipment to fund the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), which had public service as part of its Royal Charter.
WRGB claims to be the world’s oldest television station, tracing its roots to an experimental station founded on 13 January 1928, broadcasting from the General Electric factory in Schenectady, NY, under the call letters W2XB. It was popularly known as “WGY Television” after its sister radio station. Later in 1928, General Electric started a second facility, this one in New York City, which had the call letters W2XBS and which today is known as WNBC. The two stations were experimental in nature and had no regular programming, as receivers were operated by engineers within the company. The image of a Felix the Cat doll rotating on a turntable was broadcast for 2 hours every day for several years as new technology was being tested by the engineers. On 2 November 1936, the BBC began transmitting the world’s first public regular high-definition service from the Victorian Alexandra Palace in north London. It therefore claims to be the birthplace of television broadcasting as we know it from now on.
With the widespread adoption of cable across the United States in the 1970s and 1980s, terrestrial television broadcasts have been in decline; in 2013 it was estimated that about 7% of US households used an antenna. A slight increase in use began around 2010 due to switchover to digital terrestrial television broadcasts, which offered pristine image quality over very large areas, and offered an alternate to cable television (CATV) for cord cutters. All other countries around the world are also in the process of either shutting down analog terrestrial television or switching over to digital terrestrial television.
Coaxial cable is used to carry cable television signals into cathode-ray tube and flat panel television sets.
Cable television is a system of broadcasting television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables or light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with traditional terrestrial television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. In the 2000s, FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone service, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables. The abbreviation CATV is sometimes used for cable television in the United States. It originally stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television’s origins in 1948: in areas where over-the-air reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large “community antennas” were constructed, and cable was run from them to individual homes.
DBS satellite dishes installed on an apartment complex.
Satellite television is a system of supplying television programming using broadcast signals relayed from communication satellites. The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic reflector antenna usually referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter (LNB). A satellite receiver then decodes the desired television program for viewing on a television set. Receivers can be external set-top boxes, or a built-in television tuner. Satellite television provides a wide range of channels and services, especially to geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television.
The most common method of reception is direct-broadcast satellite television (DBSTV), also known as “direct to home” (DTH). In DBSTV systems, signals are relayed from a direct broadcast satellite on the Ku wavelength and are completely digital.Satellite TV systems formerly used systems known as television receive-only. These systems received analog signals transmitted in the C-band spectrum from FSS type satellites, and required the use of large dishes. Consequently, these systems were nicknamed “big dish” systems, and were more expensive and less popular.
The direct-broadcast satellite television signals were earlier analog signals and later digital signals, both of which require a compatible receiver. Digital signals may include high-definition television (HDTV). Some transmissions and channels are free-to-air or free-to-view, while many other channels are pay television requiring a subscription. In 1945, British science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke proposed a worldwide communications system which would function by means of three satellites equally spaced apart in earth orbit. This was published in the October 1945 issue of the Wireless World magazine and won him the Franklin Institute’s Stuart Ballantine Medal in 1963.
The first satellite television signals from Europe to North America were relayed via the Telstar satellite over the Atlantic ocean on 23 July 1962.The signals were received and broadcast in North American and European countries and watched by over 100 million.Launched in 1962, the Relay 1 satellite was the first satellite to transmit television signals from the US to Japan.The first geosynchronous communication satellite, Syncom 2, was launched on 26 July 1963.
The world’s first commercial communications satellite, called Intelsat I and nicknamed “Early Bird”, was launched into geosynchronous orbit on 6 April 1965. The first national network of television satellites, called Orbita, was created by the Soviet Union in October 1967, and was based on the principle of using the highly elliptical Molniya satellite for rebroadcasting and delivering of television signals to ground downlink stations. The first commercial North American satellite to carry television transmissions was Canada’s geostationary Anik 1, which was launched on 9 November 1972. ATS-6, the world’s first experimental educational and Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS), was launched on 30 May 1974. It transmitted at 860 MHz using wideband FM modulation and had two sound channels. The transmissions were focused on the Indian subcontinent but experimenters were able to receive the signal in Western Europe using home constructed equipment that drew on UHF television design techniques already in use.
The first in a series of Soviet geostationary satellites to carry Direct-To-Home television, Ekran 1, was launched on 26 October 1976. It used a 714 MHz UHF downlink frequency so that the transmissions could be received with existing UHF television technology rather than microwave technology.
Liquid-crystal-display televisions (LCD TVs) are television sets that use liquid-crystal displays to produce images. They are, by far, the most widely produced and sold television display type. LCD TVs are thin and light, but have some disadvantages compared to other display types such as high power consumption, poorer contrast ratio, and inferior color gamut.
LCD TVs rose in popularity in the early years of the 21st century, surpassing sales of cathode ray tube televisions worldwide in 2007. Sales of CRT TVs dropped rapidly after that, as did sales of competing technologies such as plasma display panels and rear-projection television.
A LED display is a flat panel display that uses an array of light-emitting diodes as pixels for a video display. Their brightness allows them to be used outdoors where they are visible in the sun for store signs and billboards. In recent years, they have also become commonly used in destination signs on public transport vehicles, as well as variable-message signs on highways. LED displays are capable of providing general illumination in addition to visual display, as when used for stage lighting or other decorative (as opposed to informational) purposes. LED displays can offer higher contrast ratios than a projector and are thus an alternative to traditional projection screens, and they can be used for large, uninterrupted (without a visible grid arising from the bezels of individual displays) video walls. microLED displays are LED displays with smaller LEDs, which poses significant development challenges.
There are two main families of OLED: those based on small molecules and those employing polymers. Adding mobile ions to an OLED creates a light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) which has a slightly different mode of operation. An OLED display can be driven with a passive-matrix (PMOLED) or active-matrix (AMOLED) control scheme. In the PMOLED scheme, each row (and line) in the display is controlled sequentially, one by one, whereas AMOLED control uses a thin-film transistor (TFT) backplane to directly access and switch each individual pixel on or off, allowing for higher resolution and larger display sizes.
OLED is fundamentally different from LED which is based on a p-n diode structure. In LEDs doping is used to create p- and n- regions by changing the conductivity of the host semiconductor. OLEDs do not employ a p-n structure. Doping of OLEDs is used to increase radiative efficiency by direct modification of the quantum-mechanical optical recombination rate. Doping is additionally used to determine the wavelength of photon emission.
An OLED display works without a backlight because it emits visible light. Thus, it can display deep black levels and can be thinner and lighter than a liquid crystal display (LCD). In low ambient light conditions (such as a dark room), an OLED screen can achieve a higher contrast ratio than an LCD, regardless of whether the LCD uses cold cathode fluorescent lamps or an LED backlight. OLED displays are made in the same way as LCDs, but after TFT (for active matrix displays), addressable grid (for passive matrix displays) or indium-tin oxide (ITO) segment (for segment displays) formation, the display is coated with hole injection, transport and blocking layers, as well with electroluminescent material after the first 2 layers, after which ITO or metal may be applied again as a cathode and later the entire stack of materials is encapsulated. The TFT layer, addressable grid or ITO segments serve as or are connected to the anode, which may be made of ITO or metal. OLEDs can be made flexible and transparent, with transparent displays being used in smartphones with optical fingerprint scanners and flexible displays being used in foldable smartphones.
QLED TVs are a type of LCD (liquid crystal display) that use an advanced color technology called quantum dots. Like other LCD TVs, these displays use LED (light-emitting diode) backlights to illuminate their screens.
This is where the “QLED” branding comes from: manufacturers simply married the “Q” from quantum dots with “LED.” But, the “QLED” acronym is more of a marketing term than a truly separate TV technology.
In other words, when you buy a QLED TV you’re really buying an LED-backlit LCD TV that just happens to have quantum dots. That said, quantum dots are a cool feature and they can make a big difference when it comes to picture quality.
Quantum dots are nanocrystals that can emit different colors when exposed to light. QLED TVs include a layer or filter of quantum dots which then enables them to produce a wider range of colors. QLED TVs are available from companies like Samsung, TCL, Vizio, and Hisense.
In 1946, before Sony came world-famed, the company started as a small electronics shop in Tokyo back in the wake of WWII. The Sony TV Brands in The World name was born 12 times latterly, along with Japan’s first vid archivist, and it wasn’t long until Sony established the Sony Corporation of America in 1960.
Since that point, the company has grown exponentially, first gaining fashionability as a high-end electronics manufacturer, also expanding into the fleetly growing videotape game assiduity.
Starting back in 1958, LG Electronics was established to give South Korean citizens with domestically manufactured electronics and appliance products, allowing the company to vend its immolations for an affordable price. LG stands for Lucky Goldstar, the company’s name until 1995 when it docked the name to LG.
Due to LG’s TV Brands in The World’s recognition as one of the top electronics manufacturers worldwide, a wide variety of locales carry its products, from small independent electronics retailers to major stores like Best Buy and Amazon.
Before 2017, all of Vizio’s Smart TVs ran a system that needed druggies to download an operation on their smartphone or tablet, which would be used to cast any content to the screen. Smart Cast streamlined that system by automatically curating a wide selection of apps without the need to download anything.
That includes major pennants from Disney to Netflix, the plenitude of individual channel apps, and a wide variety of niche apps. It’s particularly easy to use in a field where smart Television platforms aren’t always the most stoner-friendly.
Android Smart LED TVs have been on the rise, and TCL has beaten themselves with this AI-enabled TCL AI 4K Ultra HD Certified Android Smart LED Television 55P715. It comes with the rearmost Bluetooth connectivity and has 3 HDMI Anchorages and 2 USB Anchorages. It also has 4K Ultra HD resolution (3840 x 2160 pixels) along with a Dolby Audio system of two 30 W frontal speakers.
It has all the notable features of any Android Smart TV like Android9.0, Screencast and Reflecting, Smart Home setup and connectivity, etc. Unlike utmost Smart TVs, it also comes with in- erected hands-free voice control, which makes it one of the coolest TVs in the member and you can use any of the operations without any haste.
This Television can be wall-mounted or set on the top of a wall press, without any issues and it’s always safe to keep it at a distance of 10 bases for stylish use.
Engineered with a brilliant display, excellent navigation, HDR rigidity, and ideal SPDIF affair, it brings this model to the list of top television brands in India 2021. The sharp appearance and slice- edge performance are available at an affordable price. Connect your OnePlus earbuds, mobile and OnePlus watch to operate your Television at your convenience.
Use the Farfield voice point to search, play and connect hands-free. The visual quality is inconceivable, with a screen-to-body rate of95.7. It comes with a variety of modes to trial with, as well as USE AI for automatic print settings. It’s tuned with a Danish loudspeaker maker Dynaudio to deliver a booming stereo experience, a well-balanced sound profile, and a cinematic experience.
Hisense is a name you’ll be hearing a lot if you’re after a bargain Television. The budget Television brand offers ultra-expensive technologies like 4K and HDR for a decent cut below what you’d generally pay, making the Television displays of hereafter far more accessible for crowds of people.
Processing issues aren’t uncommon with Hisense sets that don’t relatively have the power to maintain smooth images, or the devoted dimming zones to help light blooming – and whether you go with a Hisense Television will depend on how important those visual artefacts are. Some half- ignited features in Hisense’s Vidal U smart TV platform, too, show what happens when you cut corners while trying to produce a decoration experience.
Panasonic is another Japanese transnational electronics company. They’re the TV Brands in The World largest manufacturer of AC and DC power products. The brand offers high- quality TVs at affordable prices, making them one of the stylish stylish brand Television in India.
This coming brand is from Japan as well. There’s a huge chance that you may have heard of Mitsubishi TV Brands in The World in some environment. This is because the name Mitsubishi doesn’t relate to anyone company manufacturing product in a certain order rather it’s the collaborative name for a group of companies that have a high-end position in colourful requests from racecars, electronics, to real estate and important more.
The company is the oldest company on the list has been active over 150 times which is great. The company is presently headquartered in Tokyo. The company started as a shipping establishment but now has a fort in colourful requests.
A lower electronics manufacturer, Sceptre was innovated in California about 35 times agone. They specialize in affordable TVs, and their focus is on affordable corridors and technology.
In 1984 they released the CRT technology, followed by the TV technology in 1993. They produce some great Ultra HD TVs with three-dimensional displays that give pictorial and realistic views. Another positive quality the company is known for is its excellent client service.
A review of TV history shows that these devices are never satisfied and are always moving towards improvement. The evolution of the TV screen has gone from blurry black and white images to images that are indistinguishable from reality. We’ll have to wait and see what these magic boxes do next.
source:wikipedia , bebusinessed
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