Due to the ever-increasing progress of the automobile industry and the mass production of internal combustion vehicles, which causes various problems such as air pollution, as well as the limited and expensive reserves of fossil fuel, the design of electric vehicles is one of the main programs of the automobile industry, especially in advanced European countries. And it has become American.
In an electric car, the electric drive assembly has the duty of converting the direct current produced by the battery into mechanical energy. The drive assembly means all the parts that convert the direct current of the batteries into the traction force and torque necessary to move the wheels. The most important feature of electric cars They are: range and power of movement (acceleration, speed, incline and loading and flexibility) and charging time and high price of batteries, in most of the existing electric cars, the driving set consists of a controller (regulating member), an electric motor, a box A gear with a reducing ratio on the axles and a distribution box for two or four wheels, other solutions are also used, for example, two engines with a gearbox or without a gearbox. The stimulus set must satisfy many and diverse demands that are used as criteria for evaluating and comparing different solutions, for example, some of the most important criteria are:
1.Traction battery pack
Traction battery pack is also known as Electric vehicle battery (EVB) . It powers the electric motors of an electric vehicle. The battery acts as an electrical storage system. It stores energy in the form DC current. The range will be higher with increasing kW of the battery. The life and operation of the battery depends on its design. The lifetime of a traction battery pack is estimated to be 200,000 miles.
the traction battery pack delivers a constant voltage. But different components of the vehicle has different requirements. The DC-DC convertor distributes the output power that is coming from the battery to a required level. It also provides the voltage required to charge the auxiliary battery.
Electric traction motor is the main component of an electric vehicle. The motor converts the electrical energy into kinetic energy. This energy rotates the wheels. Electric motor is the main component that differentiates an electric car from conventional cars. An important feature of an electric motor is the regenerative braking mechanism. This mechanism slows down the vehicle by converting its kinetic energy into another form, and storing it for future use. There are basically two types of motors DC and AC motors.
It coverts DC power from the batteries to AC power. It also converts the AC current generated during regenerative braking into DC current. This is further used to recharge the batteries. The inverter can change the speed of the.
The charge port connects the electric vehicle to an external supply. It charges the battery pack. The charge port is sometimes located in the front or rear part of the vehicle.
Onboard charger is used to convert the AC supply received from the charge port to DC supply. The on-board charger is located and installed inside the car. It monitors various battery characteristics and controls the current flowing inside the battery pack.
Power electronics controller determines the working of an electric car. It performs the regulation of electrical energy from the batteries to the electric motors. The pedal set by the driver determines the speed of the car and frequency of variation of voltage that is input to the motor. It also controls the torque produced.
Auxiliary batteries are the source of electrical energy for the accessories in electric vehicles. In the absence of the main battery, the auxiliary batteries will continue to charge the car. It prevents the voltage drop, produced during engine start from affecting the electrical system.
The thermal management system is responsible for maintaining an operating temperature for the main components of an electric vehicle such as, electric motor, controller etc. It functions during charging as well to obtain maximum performance. It uses a combination of thermoelectric cooling, forced air cooling, and liquid cooling.
It is used to transfer the mechanical power from the electric motor to the wheels, through a gearbox. The advantage of electric cars is that they do not require multi-speed transmissions. The transmission efficiency should be high to avoid power loss.
1.DC Series Motor
High starting torque capability of the DC Series motor makes it a suitable option for traction application. It was the most widely used motor for traction application in the early 1900s. The advantages of this motor are easy speed control and it can also withstand a sudden increase in load. All these characteristics make it an ideal traction motor. The main drawback of DC series motor is high maintenance due to brushes and commutators. These motors are used in Indian railways. This motor comes under the category of DC brushed motors.
2.Brushless DC Motors
It is similar to DC motors with Permanent Magnets. It is called brushless because it does not have the commutator and brush arrangement. The commutation is done electronically in this motor because of this BLDC motors are maintenance free. BLDC motors have traction characteristics like high starting torque, high efficiency around 95-98%, etc. BLDC motors are suitable for high power density design approach. The BLDC motors are the most preferred motors for the electric vehicle application due to its traction characteristics. You can learn more about BLDC motors by comparing it with normal brushed motor.
BLDC motors further have two types:
Out-runner type BLDC Motor:
In this type, the rotor of the motor is present outside and the stator is present inside. It is also called as Hub motors because the wheel is directly connected to the exterior rotor. This type of motors does not require external gear system. In a few cases, the motor itself has inbuilt planetary gears. This motor makes the overall vehicle less bulky as it does not require any gear system. It also eliminates the space required for mounting the motor. There is a restriction on the motor dimensions which limits the power output in the in-runner configuration. This motor is widely preferred by electric cycle manufacturers like Hullikal, Tronx, Spero, light speed bicycles, etc. It is also used by two-wheeler manufacturers like 22 Motors, NDS Eco Motors, etc.
In-runner type BLDC Motor:
In this type, the rotor of the motor is present inside and the stator is outside like conventional motors. These motor require an external transmission system to transfer the power to the wheels, because of this the out-runner configuration is little bulky when compared to the in-runner configuration. Many three- wheeler manufacturers like Goenka Electric Motors, Speego Vehicles, Kinetic Green, Volta Automotive use BLDC motors. Low and medium performance scooter manufacturers also use BLDC motors for propulsion.
3.Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)
This motor is also similar to BLDC motor which has permanent magnets on the rotor. Similar to BLDC motors these motors also have traction characteristics like high power density and high efficiency. The difference is that PMSM has sinusoidal back EMF whereas BLDC has trapezoidal back EMF. Permanent Magnet Synchronous motors are available for higher power ratings. PMSM is the best choice for high performance applications like cars, buses. Despite the high cost, PMSM is providing stiff competition to induction motors due to increased efficiency than the latter. PMSM is also costlier than BLDC motors. Most of the automotive manufacturers use PMSM motors for their hybrid and electric vehicles. For example, Toyota Prius, Chevrolet Bolt EV, Ford Focus Electric, zero motorcycles S/SR, Nissan Leaf, Hinda Accord, BMW i3, etc use PMSM motor for propulsion.
4.Three Phase AC Induction Motors
The induction motors do not have a high starting toque like DC series motors under fixed voltage and fixed frequency operation. But this characteristic can be altered by using various control techniques like FOC or v/f methods. By using these control methods, the maximum torque is made available at the starting of the motor which is suitable for traction application. Squirrel cage induction motors have a long life due to less maintenance. Induction motors can be designed up to an efficiency of 92-95%. The drawback of an induction motor is that it requires complex inverter circuit and control of the motor is difficult.
In permanent magnet motors, the magnets contribute to the flux density B. Therefore, adjusting the value of B in induction motors is easy when compared to permanent magnet motors. It is because in Induction motors the value of B can be adjusted by varying the voltage and frequency (V/f) based on torque requirements. This helps in reducing the losses which in turn improves the efficiency.
Tesla Model S is the best example to prove the high performance capability of induction motors compared to its counterparts. By opting for induction motors, Tesla might have wanted to eliminate the dependency on permanent magnets. Even Mahindra Reva e2o uses a three phase induction motor for its propulsion. Major automotive manufacturers like TATA motors have planned to use Induction motors in their cars and buses. The two-wheeler manufacturer TVS motors will be launching an electric scooter which uses induction motor for its propulsion. Induction motors are the preferred choice for performance oriented electric vehicles due to its cheap cost. The other advantage is that it can withstand rugged environmental conditions. Due to these advantages, the Indian railways has started replacing its DC motors with AC induction motors.
5.Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM)
Switched Reluctance Motors is a category of variable reluctance motor with double saliency. Switched Reluctance motors are simple in construction and robust. The rotor of the SRM is a piece of laminated steel with no windings or permanent magnets on it. This makes the inertia of the rotor less which helps in high acceleration. The robust nature of SRM makes it suitable for the high speed application. SRM also offers high power density which are some required characteristics of Electric Vehicles. Since the heat generated is mostly confined to the stator, it is easier to cool the motor. The biggest drawback of the SRM is the complexity in control and increase in the switching circuit. It also has some noise issues. Once SRM enters the commercial market, it can replace the PMSM and Induction motors in the future.
Electric cars function by plugging into a charge point and taking electricity from the grid. They store the electricity in rechargeable batteries that power an electric motor, which turns the wheels. Electric cars accelerate faster than vehicles with traditional fuel engines – so they feel lighter to drive.
You can charge an electric vehicle by plugging it into a public charging station or into a home charger. to get the best deal for home charging, it’s important to get the right EV electricity tariff, so you can spend less money charging and save more on your bill.
How far you can travel on a full charge depends on the vehicle. Each model has a different range, battery size and efficiency. The perfect electric car for you will be the one you can use for your normal journeys without having to stop and charge up halfway through.
There are a few different types of electric vehicle (EV). Some run purely on electricity, these are called pure electric vehicles. And some can also be run on petrol or diesel, these are called hybrid electric vehicles.
Plug-in electric: This means the car runs purely on electricity and gets all its power when it’s plugged in to charge. This type doesn’t need petrol or diesel to run so doesn’t produce any emissions like traditional cars.
Plug-in hybrid: These cars mainly run on electricity but also have a traditional fuel engine so you can use petrol or diesel too if they run out of charge. When running on fuel, these cars will produce emissions but when they’re running on electricity, they won’t. Plug-in hybrids can be plugged into an electricity source to recharge their battery.
Hybrid-electric: These run mainly on fuel like petrol or diesel but also have an electric battery too, which is recharged through regenerative braking. These let you switch between using your fuel engine and using ‘EV’ mode at the touch of a button. These cars cannot be plugged into an electricity source and rely on petrol or diesel for energy.
Slow – typically rated up to 3kW. Often used to charge overnight or at the workplace. Charging time: 8-10 hours.
Fast – typically rated at either 7Kw or 22kW. Tend to be installed in car parks, supermarkets, leisure centres and houses with off-street parking. Charging time: 3-4 hours.
Rapid – typically rated from 43 kW. Only compatible with EVs that have rapid charging capability. Charging time: 30-60 minutes.
The weather affects how much energy your electric car consumes. You have a larger range in summer and smaller range in winter.
In 1828, the Hungarian priest and physicist Ányos Jedlik invented an early type of electric motor, and created a small model car powered by his new motor. Between 1832 and 1839, Scottish inventor Robert Anderson also invented a crude electric carriage.In 1835, Professor Sibrandus Stratingh of Groningen, the Netherlands and his assistant Christopher Becker from Germany also created a small-scale electric car, powered by non-rechargeable primary cells.
In 1834, Vermont blacksmith Thomas Davenport built a similar contraption which operated on a short, circular, electrified track. The first known electric locomotive was built in 1837, in Scotland by chemist Robert Davidson of Aberdeen. It was powered by galvanic cells (batteries). Davidson later built a larger locomotive named Galvani, exhibited at the Royal Scottish Society of Arts Exhibition in 1841. The 7,100-kilogram (7-long-ton) vehicle had two direct-drive reluctance motors, with fixed electromagnets acting on iron bars attached to a wooden cylinder on each axle, and simple commutators. It hauled a load of 6,100 kilograms (6 long tons) at 6.4 kilometres per hour (4 mph) for a distance of 2.4 km (1.5 miles). It was tested on the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway in September of the following year, but the limited power from batteries prevented its general use. It was destroyed by railway workers, who saw it as a threat to their security of employment.
A patent for the use of rails as conductors of electric current was granted in England in 1840, and similar patents were issued to Lilley and Colten in the United States in 1847.The first battery rail car was used in 1887 on the Royal Bavarian State Railways.
What is likely the first human-carrying electric vehicle with its own power source was tested along a Paris street in April 1881 by French inventor Gustave Trouvé. In 1880 Trouvé improved the efficiency of a small electric motor developed by Siemens (from a design purchased from Johann Kravogl in 1867) and using the recently developed rechargeable battery, fitted it to an English James Starley tricycle, so inventing the world’s first electric vehicle.Although this was successfully tested on 19 April 1881 along the Rue Valois in central Paris, he was unable to patent it. Trouvé swiftly adapted his battery-powered motor to marine propulsion; to make it easy to carry his marine conversion to and from his workshop to the nearby River Seine, Trouvé made it portable and removable from the boat, thus inventing the outboard motor. On 26 May 1881, the 5-metre Trouvé boat prototype, called Le Téléphone reached a speed of 3.6 km/h (2.2 mph) going upstream and 9.0 km/h (5.6 mph) downstream.
English inventor Thomas Parker, who was responsible for innovations such as electrifying the London Underground, overhead tramways in Liverpool and Birmingham, and the smokeless fuel coalite, built his first electric car in Wolverhampton in 1884, although the only documentation is a photograph from 1895.
Parker’s long-held interest in the construction of more fuel-efficient vehicles led him to experiment with electric vehicles. He also may have been concerned about the malign effects smoke and pollution were having in London. Production of the car was in the hands of the Elwell-Parker Company, established in 1882 for the construction and sale of electric trams. The company merged with other rivals in 1888 to form the Electric Construction Corporation; this company had a virtual monopoly on the British electric car market in the 1890s. The company manufactured the first electric ‘dog cart’ in 1896.
France and the United Kingdom were the first nations to support the widespread development of electric vehicles. German engineer Andreas Flocken built the first real electric car in 1888.
Electric trains were also used to transport coal out of mines, as their motors did not use up precious oxygen. Before the pre-eminence of internal combustion engines, electric automobiles also held many speed and distance records. Among the most notable of these records was the breaking of the 100 km/h (62 mph) speed barrier, by Camille Jenatzy on 29 April 1899 in his ‘rocket-shaped’ vehicle Jamais Contente, which reached a top speed of 105.88 km/h (65.79 mph). Also notable was Ferdinand Porsche’s design and construction of an all-wheel drive electric car, powered by a motor in each hub, which also set several records in the hands of its owner E.W. Hart.
had a number of advantages over their early-1900s competitors. They did not have the vibration, smell, and noise associated with gasoline cars. They also did not require gear changes.
Electric vehicles had a number of advantages over their early-1900s competitors. They did not have the vibration, smell, and noise associated with gasoline cars. They also did not require gear changes. (While steam-powered cars also had no gear shifting, they suffered from long start-up times of up to 45 minutes on cold mornings.) The cars were also preferred because they did not require a manual effort to start, as did gasoline cars which featured a hand crank to start the engine.
Electric cars found popularity among well-heeled customers who used them as city cars, where their limited range proved to be even less of a disadvantage.
After enjoying success at the beginning of the 20th century, the electric car began to lose its position in the automobile market. A number of developments contributed to this situation. By the 1920s an improved road infrastructure improved travel times, creating a need for vehicles with a greater range than that offered by electric cars. Worldwide discoveries of large petroleum reserves led to the wide availability of affordable gasoline, making gas-powered cars cheaper to operate over long distances. Electric cars were limited to urban use by their slow speed (no more than 24–32 km/h or 15–20 mph) and low range (50–65 km or 30–40 miles), and gasoline cars were now able to travel farther and faster than equivalent electrics.
Gasoline cars also overcame much of their negatives compared to electrics, in several areas. Whereas ICE cars originally had to be hand-cranked to start – a difficult and sometimes dangerous activity – the invention of the electric starter by Charles Kettering in 1912 eliminated the need of a hand starting crank. Further, while gasoline engines are inherently noisier than electric motors, the invention of the muffler by Milton O. Reeves and Marshall T. Reeves in 1897 significantly reduced the noise to tolerable levels. Finally, the initiation of mass production of gas-powered vehicles by Henry Ford brought their price down. By contrast, the price of similar electric vehicles continued to rise; by 1912, an electric car sold for almost double the price of a gasoline car.
Most electric car makers stopped production at some point in the 1910s. Electric vehicles became popular for certain applications where their limited range did not pose major problems. Forklift trucks were electrically powered when they were introduced by Yale in 1923. In Europe, especially the United Kingdom, milk floats were powered by electricity, and for most of the 20th century the majority of the world’s battery electric road vehicles were British milk floats.Electric golf carts were produced by Lektro as early as 1954. By the 1920s, the early heyday of electric cars had passed, and a decade later, the electric automobile industry had effectively disappeared.
Years passed without a major revival in the use of electric cars. Fuel-starved European countries fighting in World War II experimented with electric cars such as the British milk floats and the French Bréguet Aviation car, but overall, while ICE development progressed at a brisk pace, electric vehicle technology stagnated. In the late 1950s, Henney Coachworks and the National Union Electric Company, makers of Exide batteries, formed a joint venture to produce a new electric car, the Henney Kilowatt, based on the French Renault Dauphine. The car was produced in 36-volt and 72-volt configurations. The 72-volt models had a top speed approaching 96 km/h (60 mph) and could travel for nearly an hour on a single charge. Despite Kilowatt’s improved performance with respect to previous electric cars, it was about double the cost of a regular gasoline-powered Dauphine, and production ended in 1961.
In 1959, American Motors Corporation (AMC) and Sonotone Corporation announced a joint research effort to consider producing an electric car powered by a “self-charging” battery. AMC had a reputation for innovation in economical cars while Sonotone had technology for making sintered plate nickel-cadmium batteries that could be recharged rapidly and weighed less than traditional lead-acid versions.That same year, Nu-Way Industries showed an experimental electric car with a one-piece plastic body that was to begin production in early 1960.
In the mid-1960s a few battery-electric concept cars appeared, such as the Scottish Aviation Scamp (1965),and an electric version of General Motors gasoline car, the Electrovair (1966). None of them entered production. The 1973 Enfield 8000 did make it into small-scale production, 112 were eventually produced. In 1967, AMC partnered with Gulton Industries to develop a new battery based on litium and a speed controller designed by Victor Wouk. A nickel-cadmium battery supplied power to an all-electric 1969 Rambler American station wagon. Other “plug-in” experimental AMC vehicles developed with Gulton included the Amitron (1967) and the similar Electron (1977).
On 31 July 1971, an electric car received the unique distinction of becoming the first manned vehicle to drive on the Moon; that car was the Lunar Roving Vehicle, which was first deployed during the Apollo 15 mission. The “Moon buggy” was developed by Boeing and GM subsidiary Delco Electronics (co-founded by Kettering) featured a DC drive motor in each wheel, and a pair of 36-volt silver-zinc potassium hydroxide non-rechargeable batteries.
After years outside the limelight, the energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s brought about renewed interest in the perceived independence electric cars had from the fluctuations of the hydrocarbon energy market. However, vehicles such as the intensely-marketed Sinclair C5 failed, possibly because “global warming hadn’t been invented then”. General Motors created a concept car using another gasoline car as the base, the Electrovette (1976). At the 1990 Los Angeles Auto Show, General Motors President Roger Smith unveiled the GM Impact electric concept car, along with the announcement that GM would build electric cars for sale to the public.
From the 1960s to the 1990s, a number of companies made battery electric vehicles converted from existing manufactured models, often using gliders. None were sold in large numbers, with sales hampered by high cost and a limited range. Most of these vehicles were sold to government agencies and electric utility companies. The passage of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 in the US provided government incentives for development of electric vehicles in the US. Electric Fuel Propulsion Corporation (now Apollo Energy Systems) produced the Electrosport (a converted AMC Hornet), the Mars I (a converted Renault Dauphine), and the Mars II (a converted Renault R-10). Jet Industries sold the Electra-Van 600 (a converted Subaru Sambar 600), the Electra-Van 750 (converted Mazda B2000/Ford Courier pickup trucks), the Electrica (converted Ford Escort/Mercury Lynx cars) and the Electrica 007 (converted Dodge Omni 024/Plymouth Horizon TC3 cars). U.S. Electricar Corp., based in Massachusetts, sold the Lectric Leopard, a converted Renault 5. Electric Vehicle Associates sold the Current Fare (a converted Ford Fairmont) and the Change of Pace (a converted AMC Pacer). U.S. Electricar, Inc., based in California, sold a converted Geo Prizm. Solectria Corporation (now Azure Dynamics) sold the Solectria Force (a converted Geo Metro) and the E10 (a converted Chevrolet S-10). Later, General Motors would also produce an electric S-10, the Chevrolet S-10 EV, based on the General Motors EV1.
In the early 1990s, the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the government of California’s “clean air agency”, began a push for more fuel-efficient, lower-emissions vehicles, with the ultimate goal being a move to zero-emissions vehicles such as electric vehicles. In response, automakers developed electric models, including the Chrysler TEVan, Ford Ranger EV pickup truck, GM EV1 and S10 EV pickup, Honda EV Plus hatchback, Nissan lithium-battery Altra EV miniwagon and Toyota RAV4 EV. The automakers were accused of pandering to the wishes of CARB in order to continue to be allowed to sell cars in the lucrative Californian market, while failing to adequately promote their electric vehicles in order to create the impression that the consumers were not interested in the cars, all the while joining oil industry lobbyists in vigorously protesting CARB’s mandate. GM’s program came under particular scrutiny; in an unusual move, consumers were not allowed to purchase EV1s, but were instead asked to sign closed-end leases, meaning that the cars had to be returned to GM at the end of the lease period, with no option to purchase, despite leasee interest in continuing to own the cars.Chrysler, Toyota, and a group of GM dealers sued CARB in Federal court, leading to the eventual neutering of CARB’s ZEV Mandate.
After public protests by EV drivers’ groups upset by the repossession of their cars, Toyota offered the last 328 RAV4-EVs for sale to the general public for six months until 22 November 2002. Almost all other production electric cars were withdrawn from the market and were in some cases seen to have been destroyed by their manufacturers. Toyota continues to support the several hundred Toyota RAV4-EV in the hands of the general public and in fleet usage. GM famously de-activated the few EV1s that were donated to engineering schools and museums.
Throughout the 1990s, interest in fuel-efficient or environmentally friendly cars declined among consumers in the United States, who instead favored sport utility vehicles, which were affordable to operate despite their poor fuel efficiency thanks to lower gasoline prices. Domestic U.S. automakers chose to focus their product lines on truck-based vehicles, which enjoyed larger profit margins than the smaller cars which were preferred in places like Europe or Japan.
Most electric vehicles on the world roads were low-speed, low-range neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs). Pike Research estimated there were almost 479,000 NEVs on the world roads in 2011. As of July 2006, there were between 60,000 and 76,000 low-speed battery-powered vehicles in use in the United States, up from about 56,000 in 2004. North America’s top-selling NEV is the Global Electric Motorcars (GEM) vehicles, with more than 50,000 units sold worldwide by mid 2014.The world’s two largest NEV markets in 2011 were the United States, with 14,737 units sold, and France, with 2,231 units. Other micro electric cars sold in Europe was the Kewet, since 1991, and replaced by the Buddy, launched in 2008.Also the Th!nk City was launched in 2008 but production was halted due to financial difficulties. Production restarted in Finland in December 2009. The Th!nk was sold in several European countries and the U.S. In June 2011 Think Global filed for bankruptcy and production was halted. Worldwide sales reached 1,045 units by March 2011. A total of 200,000 low-speed small electric cars were sold in China in 2013, most of which are powered by lead-acid batteries. These electric vehicles are not considered by the government as new energy vehicles due to safety and environmental concerns, and consequently, do not enjoy the same benefits as highway legal plug-in electric cars.
California electric car maker Tesla Motors began development in 2004 on the Tesla Roadster, which was first delivered to customers in 2008. The Roadster was the first highway legal serial production all-electric car to use lithium-ion battery cells, and the first production all-electric car to travel more than 320 km (200 miles) per charge. Since 2008, Tesla sold approximately 2,450 Roadsters in over 30 countries through December 2012.Tesla sold the Roadster until early 2012, when its supply of Lotus Elise gliders ran out, as its contract with Lotus Cars for 2,500 gliders expired at the end of 2011. Tesla stopped taking orders for the Roadster in the U.S. market in August 2011, and the 2012 Tesla Roadster was sold in limited numbers only in Europe, Asia and Australia.
The Mitsubishi i-MiEV was launched in Japan for fleet customers in July 2009, and for individual customers in April 2010 ,followed by sales to the public in Hong Kong in May 2010, and Australia in July 2010 via leasing. The i-MiEV was launched in Europe in December 2010, including a rebadged version sold in Europe as Peugeot iOn and Citroën C-Zero. The market launch in the Americas began in Costa Rica in February 2011, followed by Chile in May 2011. Fleet and retail customer deliveries in the U.S. and Canada began in December 2011. Accounting for all vehicles of the iMiEV brand, Mitsubishi reports around 27,200 units sold or exported since 2009 through December 2012, including the minicab MiEVs sold in Japan, and the units rebadged and sold as Peugeot iOn and Citroën C-Zero in the European market.
The Nissan Leaf, introduced in Japan and the United States in December 2010, became the first modern all-electric, zero tailpipe emission five door family hatchback to be produced for the mass market from a major manufacturer. As of January 2013, the Leaf is also available in Australia, Canada and 17 European countries.
As of June 2014, there were over 500,000 plug-in electric passenger cars and utility vans in the world, with the U.S. leading plug-in electric car sales with a 45% share of global sales. In September 2014, sales of plug-in electric cars in the United States reached the 250,000 unit milestone. Global cumulative sales of the Tesla Model S passed the 50,000 unit milestone in October 2014. In November 2014 the Renault–Nissan Alliance reached 200,000 all-electric vehicles delivered globally, representing a 58% share of the global light-duty all-electric market segment.
By mid-September 2015, the global stock of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and utility vans passed the one million sales milestone, with the pure electrics capturing about 62% of global sales.
The Tesla Model 3 is the world’s all-time best selling plug-in electric car, and became the first electric car to sell 1 million units in June 2021.
The Tesla Model 3 surpassed the Nissan Leaf in early 2020 to become the world’s best selling electric car ever, with more than 500,000 total units sold by March 2020. However, the Tesla Model Y is the bestselling electric vehicle in terms of yearly units. Tesla also became the first auto manufacturer to produce 1 million electric cars in March 2020. Global sales of the Model 3 passed the 1 million milestone in June 2021, the first electric car model to do so.
The Nissan Leaf achieved the milestone of 500,000 units sold globally in early December 2020, 10 years after its inception.Combined sales of plug-in electric cars and light-duty commercial vans since 2010 achieved the 10 million unit milestone by the end of 2020.
VinFast of VinGroup from Vietnam also introduced their electric vehicles such as VinFast Klara scooter, cars, buses.
They can significantly contribute to the reduction in local air pollution and possibly also to reduction in GHG emissions in the transport sector. In addition, an increase in energy supply security reducing the dependency from the imported fossil fuels could result from a switch to electric vehicles.
1.Lower running costs
The running cost of an electric vehicle is much lower than an equivalent petrol or diesel vehicle. Electric vehicles use electricity to charge their batteries instead of using fossil fuels like petrol or diesel. Electric vehicles are more efficient, and that combined with the electricity cost means that charging an electric vehicle is cheaper than filling petrol or diesel for your travel requirements. Using renewable energy sources can make the use of electric vehicles more eco-friendly. The electricity cost can be reduced further if charging is done with the help of renewable energy sources installed at home, such as solar panels.
2.Low maintenance cost
Electric vehicles have very low maintenance costs because they don’t have as many moving parts as an internal combustion vehicle. The servicing requirements for electric vehicles are lesser than the conventional petrol or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the yearly cost of running an electric vehicle is significantly low.
3.Zero Tailpipe Emissions
Driving an electric vehicle can help you reduce your carbon footprint because there will be zero tailpipe emissions. You can reduce the environmental impact of charging your vehicle further by choosing renewable energy options for home electricity.
4.Electric Vehicles are easy to drive and quiet
Electric vehicles don’t have gears and are very convenient to drive. There are no complicated controls, just accelerate, brake, and steer. When you want to charge your vehicle, just plug it in to a home or public charger. Electric vehicles are also quiet, so they reduce noise pollution that traditional vehicles contribute to.
5.Convenience of charging at home
Imagine being at a busy fuel station during peak hours, and you are getting late to reach your workplace. These problems can easily be overcome with an electric vehicle. Simply plug your vehicle in at your home charger for 4-5 hours before you plan to go. If you are able to get a charger where you park at home, it is very convenient to plan your journeys in advance. What if you forget to plug in your machine someday? Then you can easily take the help of fast chargers or even battery swapping services if you are on a two-wheeler on the road.
6.No noise pollution
Electric vehicles have the silent functioning capability as there is no engine under the hood. No engine means no noise. The electric motor functions so silently that you need to peek into your instrument panel to check if it is ON. Electric vehicles are so silent that manufacturers have to add false sounds in order to make them safe for pedestrians.
Tesla, Elon Musk’s innovative technology company, is known for producing top-quality, cutting-edge vehicles with high-end and creative features. Tesla’s most popular vehicle to date is the Model Y, followed by the Model 3 and then the Model S. Tesla’s offerings show a good balance of having a long range and affordable price.
BMW is a German car company that produces luxury cars. After entering the electric car market in a major way with the BMW i3 in 2014, the manufacturer recently introduced the i4 and iX, a large SUV.
Headquartered in Japan, Nissan’s electric car offerings are led by the Nissan Leaf. As one of the world’s most popular electric vehicles, the Leaf offers all the benefits of driving electric, while staying available with a relatively low price point.
Chevrolet is a division of American company General Motors, and sells a wide range of vehicles worldwide. Chevy’s first foray into the all-electric car market is the Chevrolet Bolt, which offers over 2520 miles per charge at a price far below other long-range vehicles, such as Tesla’s current lineup.
Ford is a classic American car maker, producing a plethora of vehicles for sale worldwide from pickup trucks to plug-in hybrids. Their leading electric vehicle today is the Ford Mustang Mach-E.
Volkswagen is a German automaker known for the VW Beetle. It offers numerous EVs, including the ID.4. A relatively affordable EV, the ID.4 averages about 97 MPGe with about 260 miles between charges.
Petrol and diesel use is destroying our planet
the availability of fossil fuels is limited, and their use is destroying our planet. Toxic emissions from petrol and diesel vehicles lead to long-term, adverse effects on public health. The emissions impact of electric vehicles is much lower than petrol or diesel vehicles. From an efficiency perspective, electric vehicles can covert around 60% of the electrical energy from the grid to power the wheels, but petrol or diesel cars can only convert 17%-21% of the energy stored in the fuel to the wheels. That is a waste of around 80%. Fully electric vehicles have zero tailpipe emissions, but even when electricity production is taken into account, petrol or diesel vehicles emit almost 3 times more carbon dioxide than the average EV.
source:circuitdigest , evgo , yocharg , edfenergy , wikipedia , amrit , energysage
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