The word diesel is the name of a German inventor named Dr. Rudolph Diesel, who registered a special type of internal combustion engine in 1892, in honor of this inventor, such engines are called diesel engines.
Diesel engines are a wide variety of engines that can ignite a combustible material without the need for an electric spark. In these engines, high temperatures are used to ignite the fuel. In this way, first they raise the temperature of the combustion chamber very high, and after the temperature is high enough, they mix the combustible material with air.
As you know, to burn a combustible material, it needs two factors, heat and need. It enters the cylinder chamber through the engine’s intake ducts and then is driven by the piston. This compression is so high that it causes very high heat. Then the third factor i.e. the combustible material is added to the tests related to heat and as a result of which the fuel ignites.
Diesel engines are divided into 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines based on how they work. But in both of these engines, four main operations are performed, which are suction or breathing – compression – explosion and discharge, but depending on the type of engine, these steps may be performed separately or together.For now we will only discuss the main parts of 4 stroke diesel engine and their functions. The main component of a diesel engine is all the components that are directly related to the 4 stroke diesel fuel cycle.The components include:
Cylinder block is the main component of internal combustion engine both 2 stroke and 4 stroke. This component becomes a primary component to place various engine compartments that support the working process of the machine.Cylinder block made of cast iron which has a high degree of precision. Generally on a block cylinder has several components ;
Cylinder / main linner. This component will serve as a place up and down the piston.The components is made of iron and aluminum alloy located inside of engine block using press methode, so it will be difficult to detach.
Water jacket. Water jacket is a cooling water sheath located inside the engine block. The goal for the engine cooling process takes place. hole-shaped water jacket inside the cylinder block that surrounds the linner.
Oil feed lines. The oil hole on the cylinder block serves to create the engine oil line from the cylinder head to the crankcase. This hole will support the engine oil circulation process to all diesel engine parts.
The second component unit is located on the top of the engine. Similar to cylinder block, this component is also made of cast material. Currently aluminum head cylinder seems to be an option, because it is lighter and stronger. This unit consists of valve & spring, camshaft, rocker arm, and combustion chamber.
Piston have a function to adjust the volume inside the cylinder. why the volume of the cylinder needs to be regulated? this is so that the working process of the 4 stroke engine can take place. In this case when the piston moves down the volume of the cylinder will enlarge, while when the piston moves up the volume of the cylinder will shrink. While connecting rod serves to continue the motion up and down the piston to flywheel. In general there are three core parts on the piston namely;
Ring compression. This rings are elastic in function to prevent the occurrence of air leaks during the compression stroke. The way this ring works is to close the gap between the piston wall and the main linner.
Oil ring. Ring printed under the compression ring serves to prevent engine oil from entering the combustion chamber.
Pin pistons. A pin located inside the piston to connect the piston with the connecting rod. This pin is tubular, when connected to the small end it will function like a hinge.
Crankshaft is a component made of cast iron which is used to turn the piston up and down motion into a rotary movement. The working principle of crankshaft is similar when we using a bicycle. Because it is related to the pressure of the piston, the crankshaft should not be supple or fracture when it gets pressure from the piston. For this component is made of special iron alloy that has high strength and anti-fastness. Some parts on the crankshaft are;
Crank pin. Crank pin is a pin that will connect to the big end on the connecting rod.
Crank journal. While the crank journal is a pin that serves as a shaft on the crankshaft in order to spin. Crank journaling will be attached to the cylinder block.
Weight balance. This component is located opposite the crank pin, its function as a counterweight as well as to drain the oil to the entire inside of the machine.
Oil pan (Carter) is a special tub that serves to accommodate engine oil. Although only served as a container of engine oil, this component also can not be made carelessly. Generally these components are made of thin iron like zinc, but some cars have combined with thicker materials.
The timing chain is included in the valve mechanism system, its function to connect the crankshaft and camshaft rotation with a certain angle. The component of this chain is located on the front of the engine. This chain will connect the sprocket gear from the crankshaft with the sprocket gear of the camshaft.
Flywheel initially serves to balance the engine speed. This component is made of solid iron that can store torque, that’s why this component can balancing the engine speed.
In addition, flywheel also serves to power the engine, this can be seen from the outside of the flywheel that has many gear. The gear will be connected with starter motor pinnion to start the engine.
This component consists of fuel tank to injector. Diesel fuel system serves to supply a number of diesel fuel into the combustion chamber during the stroke. There are two kinds of fuel systems in diesel engines, namely conventional and common rail systems. The advantages of diesel engines that use common rail is more efficient and economic. This is because the common rail system has been carrying computerized control, so the calculations can be done accurately.
The above components are very influential on the success of the diesel engine working cycle. If there is damage to any of the above components, the diesel working process will be disrupted.
In 1878, Rudolf Diesel, who was a student at the “Polytechnikum” in Munich, attended the lectures of Carl von Linde. Linde explained that steam engines are capable of converting just 6–10% of the heat energy into work, but that the Carnot cycle allows conversion of much more of the heat energy into work by means of isothermal change in condition. According to Diesel, this ignited the idea of creating a highly efficient engine that could work on the Carnot cycle.Diesel was also exposed to a fire piston, a traditional fire starter using rapid adiabatic compression principles which Linde had acquired from Southeast Asia. After several years of working on his ideas, Diesel published them in 1893 in the essay Theory and Construction of a Rational Heat Motor.
Diesel was heavily criticised for his essay, but only few found the mistake that he made; his rational heat motor was supposed to utilise a constant temperature cycle (with isothermal compression) that would require a much higher level of compression than that needed for compression ignition. Diesel’s idea was to compress the air so tightly that the temperature of the air would exceed that of combustion. However, such an engine could never perform any usable work. In his 1892 US patent (granted in 1895) #542846, Diesel describes the compression required for his cycle:”pure atmospheric air is compressed, according to curve 1 2, to such a degree that, before ignition or combustion takes place, the highest pressure of the diagram and the highest temperature are obtained-that is to say, the temperature at which the subsequent combustion has to take place, not the burning or igniting point. To make this more clear, let it be assumed that the subsequent combustion shall take place at a temperature of 700°. Then in that case the initial pressure must be sixty-four atmospheres, or for 800° centigrade the pressure must be ninety atmospheres, and so on. Into the air thus compressed is then gradually introduced from the exterior finely divided fuel, which ignites on introduction, since the air is at a temperature far above the igniting-point of the fuel. The characteristic features of the cycle according to my present invention are therefore, increase of pressure and temperature up to the maximum, not by combustion, but prior to combustion by mechanical compression of air, and there upon the subsequent performance of work without increase of pressure and temperature by gradual combustion during a prescribed part of the stroke determined by the cut-oil”.
By June 1893, Diesel had realised his original cycle would not work and he adopted the constant pressure cycle. Diesel describes the cycle in his 1895 patent application. Notice that there is no longer a mention of compression temperatures exceeding the temperature of combustion. Now it is simply stated that the compression must be sufficient to trigger ignition.
“1. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder and piston constructed and arranged to compress air to a degree producing a temperature above the igniting-point of the fuel, a supply for compressed air or gas; a fuel-supply; a distributing-valve for fuel, a passage from the air supply to the cylinder in communication with the fuel-distributing valve, an inlet to the cylinder in communication with the air-supply and with the fuel-valve, and a cut-oil, substantially as described.
“In 1892, Diesel received patents in Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States for “Method of and Apparatus for Converting Heat into Work”.
The first diesel engine
Diesel sought out firms and factories that would build his engine. With the help of Moritz Schröter and Max Gutermuth he succeeded in convincing both Krupp in Essen and the Maschinenfabrik Augsburg.Contracts were signed in April 1893, and in early summer 1893, Diesel’s first prototype engine was built in Augsburg. On 10 August 1893, the first ignition took place, the fuel used was petrol. In winter 1893/1894, Diesel redesigned the existing engine, and by 18 January 1894, his mechanics had converted it into the second prototype. During January that year, an air-blast injection system was added to the engine’s cylinder head and tested. Friedrich Sass argues that, it can be presumed that Diesel copied the concept of air-blast injection from George B. Brayton, albeit that Diesel substantially improved the system. On 17 February 1894, the redesigned engine ran for 88 revolutions – one minute; with this news, Maschinenfabrik Augsburg’s stock rose by 30%, indicative of the tremendous anticipated demands for a more efficient engine. On 26 June 1895, the engine achieved an effective efficiency of 16.6% and had a fuel consumption of 519 g·kW−1·h−1. However, despite proving the concept, the engine caused problems, and Diesel could not achieve any substantial progress. Therefore, Krupp considered rescinding the contract they had made with Diesel.Diesel was forced to improve the design of his engine and rushed to construct a third prototype engine. Between 8 November and 20 December 1895, the second prototype had successfully covered over 111 hours on the test bench. In the January 1896 report, this was considered a success.
In February 1896, Diesel considered supercharging the third prototype. Imanuel Lauster, who was ordered to draw the third prototype “Motor 250/400”, had finished the drawings by 30 April 1896. During summer that year the engine was built, it was completed on 6 October 1896.Tests were conducted until early 1897. First public tests began on 1 February 1897. Moritz Schröter’s test on 17 February 1897 was the main test of Diesel’s engine. The engine was rated 13.1 kW with a specific fuel consumption of 324 g·kW−1·h−1,resulting in an effective efficiency of 26.2%. By 1898, Diesel had become a millionaire.
An MAN DM trunk piston diesel engine built in 1906. The MAN DM series is considered to be one of the first commercially successful diesel engines.
Mercedes-Benz OM 352, one of the first direct injected Mercedes-Benz diesel engines. It was introduced in 1963, but mass production only started in summer 1964.
BMW E28 524td, the first mass-produced passenger car with an electronically controlled injection pump
Audi R10 TDI, 2006 24 Hours of Le Mans winner.
The diesel engine had a major impact during the Industrial Revolution, delivering power more efficiently, thus less expensively, for a variety of industries all over the world. Because its use did not require burning coal, train transport and shipping companies were able to save a great deal of money.
Diesel engines are commonly used as mechanical engines, power generators and in mobile drives. They find wide spread use in locomotives, construction equipment, automobiles, and countless industrial applications.
Caterpillar manufactures and markets mining, construction, and forestry machinery. It also makes engines and other related parts for its equipment and offers financing and insurance. The company distributes its products through a worldwide network of dealers.
Cummins manufactures natural gas and diesel engines for the bus, construction, heavy and medium trucks, mining, and governmental equipment markets. It also supplies complimentary products for engines. The company manufactures components, such as controls, transfer switches, and switchgear.
JCB manufactures equipment for agriculture, construction, government and defense, waste handling, and demolition. It offers various kinds of diesel engines including stage IV final base engine, stage IIIB interim base engine, stage IIIA base engine, and stage II 6 and 4 cylinder base engines.
Kubota Group designs, manufactures, and sells various machinery, such as mowers, tractors, wheel loaders, utility vehicles, pumps, generators, harvesters, rice transplanters, and mini-excavators. It sells its products mainly through dealers. A smaller division of the company sells pipes and valves for water supply and sewage systems.
For many years after the invention of the diesel engine, this type of engine was mainly and exclusively used in on-site and heavy work such as generating electricity, pumping water, driving passenger and cargo boats, and also for generating power to meet some of the needs of factories. These engines were heavy, slow, had one or more cylinders and were of two-stroke or four-stroke type.
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